The World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) Report Database contains 130 reports on housing construction types in 43 seismically active countries. Each housing report is a detailed description of a housing type in a particular country. The description is prepared from a number of standard closed-ended questions and some narrative that have been provided by report authors. Each report has five major categories including architectural and structural features; Building Materials and Construction Process; Socio-economic Issues; Past Performance In Earthquakes, Seismic Features and Vulnerability; and Retrofit. All of the housing reports in this database have been contributed by volunteers. If you are interested in writing a housing report please contact the WHE Editorial Board.


The World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) is a collection of resources related to housing construction practices in the seismically active areas of the world. The mission is to share experiences with different construction types and encourage the use of earthquake-resistant technologies worldwide. The technical activities of the WHE are steered by an international team of 22 professionals specializing in different aspects of seismic safety of buildings and structures. They bring relevant experience from 16 seismically active countries across the world. For more information about the World Housing Encyclopedia, visit

General Information


Report #:42
Building Type: Houses with mud walls and thatch roofs
Country: Kyrgyzstan
Author(s): Svetlana Uranova
Ulugbek T. Begaliev
Last Updated:
Regions Where Found: Buildings of this construction type can be found in all regions of Kyrgyzstan. This type of housing construction is commonly found in both rural and urban areas.

This building type is widespread in the rural areas of ...

Length of time practiced: 101-200 years
Still Practiced: Yes
In practice as of:
Building Occupancy: Single dwelling
Typical number of stories: 1
Terrain-Flat: Typically
Terrain-Sloped: Typically





Plan Shape Rectangular, solid
Additional comments on plan shape Typical shape of a building plan for this housing type is rectangular.
Typical plan length (meters) 10
Typical plan width (meters) 10
Typical story height (meters) 3
Type of Structural System Masonry: Earthen/Mud/Adobe/Rammed Earth Walls: Mud walls
Additional comments on structural system Lateral load-resisting system: Lateral load-resisting system for buildings of this type consist of clay walls and wood roof and floor structures. Gravity load-bearing system: The gravity load-bearing structure consists of the same elements as lateral load-resisting structure..
Gravity load-bearing & lateral load-resisting systems There are several subtypes related to this structural system: adobe block walls, cast-in-place mud walls, and cast-in-place mud walls with timber elements (sinch).
Typical wall densities in direction 1 5-10%
Typical wall densities in direction 2 5-10%
Additional comments on typical wall densities Total wall area/plan area is 0.2. Wall density in each principal direction is on the order of 8-10%.
Wall Openings Typical size of windows: 1.2m (height) X 1-1.2 m (width), doors: 2m (height) X 1m (width). There are 5-6 windows in a building. Overall window and door areas account for around 12-15% of the overall wall surface area.
Is it typical for buildings of this type to have common walls with adjacent buildings? No
Modifications of buildings There are lots of modifications to buildings of this type. The modifications are more common in urban than in rural areas. Typical modifications include installation of new door openings, deleting the existing window openings and expansion (addition of rooms).
Type of Foundation Shallow Foundation: Rubble stone, fieldstone strip footing
Additional comments on foundation
Type of Floor System Other floor system
Additional comments on floor system
Type of Roof System Roof system, other
Additional comments on roof system Timber: wood shingle roof
Additional comments section 2 When separated from adjacent buildings, the typical distance from a neighboring building is 10 meters.


Building Materials and Construction Process



Description of Building Materials

Structural Element Building Material (s)Comment (s)
Wall/Frame Wall: Clay
Foundations Stone
Floors Wood
Roof Wood

Design Process

Who is involved with the design process? Owner
Roles of those involved in the design process Buildings of this type are usually constructed by owners.
Expertise of those involved in the design process Buildings are constructed by owners without any engineered building technique.

Construction Process

Who typically builds this construction type? Owner
Roles of those involved in the building process
Expertise of those involved in building process Buildings of this type are constructed by unskilled persons.
Construction process and phasing This building is typically constructed incrementally and is not designed for its final constructed size.
Construction issues This construction type is very vulnerable to seismic effects. The construction is not performed according to the building code requirements- it is a nonengineered construction practice. However, it is a widely used construction due to its low cost, mainly by the poor sections of society.

Building Codes and Standards

Is this construction type address by codes/standards? No
Applicable codes or standards This is a traditional type of construction which had been practiced before the introduction of building codes. As this is a non-engineered construction, current building codes do not address this type of construction. The most recent code/standard addressing this construction type issued was Construction standards do not address this type of construction.
Process for building code enforcement

Building Permits and Development Control Rules

Are building permits required? No
Is this typically informal construction? Yes
Is this construction typically authorized as per development control rules? No
Additional comments on building permits and development control rules

Building Maintenance and Condition

Typical problems associated with this type of construction
Who typically maintains buildings of this type? Owner(s)
Additional comments on maintenance and building condition

Construction Economics

Unit construction cost Load-bearing structure only approximately 10-15 US$/sq m
Labor requirements In order to construct one building of this type, 4-5 people need to work for 3-4 months.
Additional comments section 3 This is a traditional type of construction which had been practiced before the introduction of building codes. As this is a non-engineered construction, current building codes do not address this type of construction.


Socio-Economic Issues



Patterns of occupancy Typically, one family per building.
Number of inhabitants in a typical building of this construction type during the day <5
Number of inhabitants in a typical building of this construction type during the evening/night 5-10
Additional comments on number of inhabitants
Economic level of inhabitants Very low-income class (very poor)Low-income class (poor)
Additional comments on economic level of inhabitants Ratio of housing unit price to annual income: 1:1 or better
Typical Source of Financing Personal savings
Additional comments on financing
Type of Ownership Own outright
Additional comments on ownership
Is earthquake insurance for this construction type typically available? No
What does earthquake insurance typically cover/cost
Are premium discounts or higher coverages available for seismically strengthened buildings or new buildings built to incorporate seismically resistant features? No
Additional comments on premium discounts
Additional comments section 4





Past Earthquakes in the country which affected buildings of this type

YearEarthquake Epicenter Richter Magnitude Maximum Intensity
1992Suusamir, Kyrgyz Republic
1986Kairakuum, Kyrgyz Republic/Tajikistan border

Past Earthquakes

Damage patterns observed in past earthquakes for this construction type Most buildings suffered damages to walls or total collapse.
Additional comments on earthquake damage patterns Overall damage patterns observed in past earthquakes for this type of construction included damaged or collapsed walls due to in-plane and out-of-plane seismic effects and collapse of buildings.

Structural and Architectural Features for Seismic Resistance

The main reference publication used in developing the statements used in this table is FEMA 310 “Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Buildings-A Pre-standard”, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C., 1998.

The total width of door and window openings in a wall is: For brick masonry construction in cement mortar : less than ½ of the distance between the adjacent cross walls; For adobe masonry, stone masonry and brick masonry in mud mortar: less than 1/3 of the distance between the adjacent cross walls; For precast concrete wall structures: less than 3/4 of the length of a perimeter wall.
Structural/Architectural Feature Statement Seismic Resistance
Lateral load pathThe structure contains a complete load path for seismic force effects from any horizontal direction that serves to transfer inertial forces from the building to the foundation.FALSE
Building Configuration-VerticalThe building is regular with regards to the elevation. (Specify in 5.4.1)FALSE
Building Configuration-HorizontalThe building is regular with regards to the plan. (Specify in 5.4.2)FALSE
Roof ConstructionThe roof diaphragm is considered to be rigid and it is expected that the roof structure will maintain its integrity, i.e. shape and form, during an earthquake of intensity expected in this area.FALSE
Floor ConstructionThe floor diaphragm(s) are considered to be rigid and it is expected that the floor structure(s) will maintain its integrity during an earthquake of intensity expected in this area.FALSE
Foundation PerformanceThere is no evidence of excessive foundation movement (e.g. settlement) that would affect the integrity or performance of the structure in an earthquake. FALSE
Wall and Frame Structures-RedundancyThe number of lines of walls or frames in each principal direction is greater than or equal to 2.TRUE
Wall ProportionsHeight-to-thickness ratio of the shear walls at each floor level is: Less than 25 (concrete walls); Less than 30 (reinforced masonry walls); Less than 13 (unreinforced masonry walls);TRUE
Foundation-Wall ConnectionVertical load-bearing elements (columns, walls) are attached to the foundations; concrete columns and walls are doweled into the foundation.FALSE
Wall-Roof ConnectionsExterior walls are anchored for out-of-plane seismic effects at each diaphragm level with metal anchors or straps. FALSE
Wall OpeningsTRUE
Quality of Building MaterialsQuality of building materials is considered to be adequate per the requirements of national codes and standards (an estimate). FALSE
Quality of WorkmanshipQuality of workmanship (based on visual inspection of a few typical buildings) is considered to be good (per local construction standards).FALSE
MaintenanceBuildings of this type are generally well maintained and there are no visible signs of deterioration of building elements (concrete, steel, timber).FALSE

Additional comments on structural and architectural features for seismic resistance
Vertical irregularities typically found in this construction type Other
Horizontal irregularities typically found in this construction type Other
Seismic deficiency in walls Wall material (clay) is characterized with low compressive and shear strength.
Earthquake-resilient features in walls
Seismic deficiency in frames
Earthquake-resilient features in frame
Seismic deficiency in roof and floors Wood beams are not joined together in the horizontal diaphragm.
Earthquake resilient features in roof and floors
Seismic deficiency in foundation
Earthquake-resilient features in foundation

Seismic Vulnerability Rating

For information about how seismic vulnerability ratings were selected see the Seismic Vulnerability Guidelines

High vulnerabilty Medium vulnerabilityLow vulnerability
Seismic vulnerability class o

Additional comments section 5

Retrofit Information


Description of Seismic Strengthening Provisions

Structural Deficiency Seismic Strengthening

Additional comments on seismic strengthening provisions Seismic strengthening is not economically feasible. It is more cost-effective to reconstruct buildings of this type rather than strengthen them to resist earthquake effects.
Has seismic strengthening described in the above table been performed?
Was the work done as a mitigation effort on an undamaged building or as a repair following earthquake damages?
Was the construction inspected in the same manner as new construction?
Who performed the construction: a contractor or owner/user? Was an architect or engineer involved?
What has been the performance of retrofitted buildings of this type in subsequent earthquakes?
Additional comments section 6



Seismic Hazard and Buildings Vulnerability in Post-Soviet Central Asia Republics. Edited by Stephanie A. King, Vitaly I. Khalturin and Brian E. Tucker. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. (Proceeding of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earthquake Risk Management Strategies for Post-Soviet Central Asian Republics. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 22-25 October 1996)

Building and Construction Design in Seismic Regions.Handbook. Uranova S.K., Imanbekov S.T#KyrgyzNIIPStroitelstva, Building Ministry Kyrgyz Republic.Bishkek.1996.


Name Title Affiliation Location Email
Svetlana Uranova Dr., Head of the Laboratory KRSU Kievskai 44, Bishkek 720000 Kyrgyz Republic
Ulugbek T. Begaliev Head of Department KNIIPC Vost Prom Zone Cholponatisky 2, Bishkek 720571 Kyrgyz Republic


Name Title Affiliation Location Email
Svetlana N. Brzev Instructor Civil and Structural Engineering Technology, British Columbia Institute of Technology Burnaby BC V5G 3H2, Canada